Skip to content

llustrate Melvin De Fleur’s model of communication. Compare it with Shannon and Weaver’s model.

September 16, 2012


De Fleur’s  model of  communication

     Communication is the process of exchanging the message through  a medium. Melvin De fleur developed his own model of communication based on Shannon- Weaver model and Westly & Mechan model of communication. One way of communication model is introduced by Shannon-Weaver and two way of communication which has the unique character of linear feed back, creatd by Westly and Mackan become foundation for the De Fleur model of communication. the combination of these two models create better model called De Fleur model of communication.



      De Fleur model of communication have few characteristics. It introduces mass media devices in the communication process. In this model , the communication process takes place in a circular nature. It begins from where it ends and it ends where it begins. So we can call it as two way feedback process. Another important characteristic is the role of noise which can occur at any stages of communication process.

    Like any other model, this model also starts with an information source station from where the message is produced and sent. Then there is transmitter which operates signal and of course a medium or channel through which the message is transferred to a receiver and finally into the destination. Here , mass medium device is a part of channel or medium. Once the message is received and reached to the destination there arise the feedback. Here, De Fleur presents feedback device which is the part of medium when the receiver sends his feedback. This feedback will be given by the target audience. Depence on the feedback of the target audience the sender will be informed whether the proper communication has taken place or not.

    Two way of communication  takes place in De Fleur model of communication. By sending  feedback the receiver becomes sender and by receiving  the feedback  the sender becomes receiver. This is the point where circular process takes place continuously in a communication process.

     This model can be explained well with the help of  an example. Just imagine that a company wants to introduce a new product in the market. So, in order to get the publicity the company makes an advertisement about the product and puts it in TV channel. Here, TV becomes a mass medium device since millions of people watch it. People watch the advertisement  and able to draw the meaning out of it. Now the message is reached to the target audience through a medium. The feedback or response will be given by the people through other channel or medium like social network, telephone and emails or through directly purchasing the production.

      Here, the circular process of communication or two way of communication is carried out. People become the senders and they use feedback device  as a s to give a response to what is already communicated to them . Feedback device can be again social networks, print media , telephone and emails. The company becomes receiver of the feedback  and will be able to know what is understood  by the people. Depends on this feedback  company  will try to communicate  again with the people. It continues for long time and becomes circular process of communication.

Comparison with Shannon-Weaver model

                                                                 F                          F


      There are many similarities between these two models. Shannon – weaver model of communication is one way of communication.  De Fleur’s model also starts with one way of communication but continues further to two way of communication. In  both models, there is source of information, sender, transmitter,  channel, receiver, destination and noise source. The function of all these factors are same in both models of communication. Source of information can be anything. The human being , animal, plants and machine or tools can become the source  of information and the information that is collected is a cognitive process. There is a communication that is carried out between sender and receiver and message is being send through a medium. Here too,  the medium  can be anything.

      Noise in both models plays a crucial role in the communication process. Noise can be any physical or psychological disturbances  which distracts the sender or receiver in the  communication process. The proper communication will be complete only when the feedback is received. Every message is sent with a purpose and it serves a need. And also, there is a pattern used in communication process. Interpersonal communication is being highlighted in both models.

      De Fleur’s model of communication is a two way of communication whereas, Shannon- Weaver model is one way of communication model and it is linear in manner. The De Fleur model introduces target audience and two way feedback. Shannon-Weaver model ends with destination but De Fleur’s models does not end  with destination. Further communication  that is sending the feedback takes place. The receiver becomes sender to send the feedback with the help of a feedback device which is again  a  communication  channel. As a result, the sender becomes receiver by receiving  the feedback through a channel. So, circular  process which is absent  in Shannon-Weaver model is present  in De Fleur’s model of communication.

Personal view

      For instance, I wanted to make a phone call to my friend. I just reflected on what  I am going to speak and I used  my cell phone to call him. I could hear the  ring at the end of my friend’s cell phone. He picked up the cell and  listened to  me.  I asked him, “ Are you fine or not.” He replied , “ I am  fine”. Then  I asked him, “  Would you like to join me for a movie tonight”.  He replied , “I will join  you “. And we both thanked each other.

      In this conversation, there is a source of information  that  is me and I am also taking the role of  a sender. The medium is used is  cell phone which is a  device. Transmitter is used to tap the signal . My friend  becomes the receiver and the destinations. Since he replies correctly, we can say the proper communication is done between us. The disturbance that we faced during the conversation can be due to the  noise source. Shannon –Weaver model of communication ends where the message reached to the destination. De Fleur’s model gives further communication from giving feedback to till the entire conversation gets over. When my friend said that he is fine the feed back is send to me. Here , he becomes a sender and I become the receiver. It continues till the  entire conversation ends.


      De fleurs model of communication is more effective and it is most commonly used communication process than Shannon-Weaver model. In modern world, where the communication process is undergoing transformations still    De Fleur’s model is very relevant, because this two way of communication gives completeness to any  type  of communication. The circular process and two way of communication with feedback of target audience make the De Fleur’s model more effective way of communication than Shannon – weaver model of communication.



  1. Mass Communication by Seema Hasan-2010.
  2.  Theories of communication   by Long man, Little John& Foss   – 2008
  3. Clarifying communication theories by Gerald Stone, Michael Singletary &Virginia P. Richmond-2003
  4. Theories of communication  by Melvin  L. Defleur and Sandra  J Ball
  5. Google search-  Defleur’s theory of communication



From → Uncategorized

Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: